There are many factors that can influence the breeding performance of mice and rats. A wildtype mouse crossed with a mouse with two modified genes a homozygote will result in all offspring being heterozygotes. Therefore, visualization of copulatory plugs, observation of vaginal changes, or vaginal cytology are commonly used to assist with the prediction of when a female has conceived a litter see below. The presence of a scrotal sac in male animals is another sex indicator. One of the most common applications of setting up mating is to develop mice with altered genotype. They are angular in appearance and are in densely packed clusters. First step is determination of the sex, which is done by comparing the anogenital distances.
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